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CHAURI CHAURA- A century of non-cooperation movement and the ‘Caliphate’ movement

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Petty Officer Manan Bhatt
Petty Officer Manan Bhatt
Petty Officer Manan Bhatt is a Retired non-commissioned officer of the Indian Navy having participated in Kargil War and Operation Parakram. He joined the Navy in the year 1997 and hanged his boots in the year 2012, after 15 years of distinguished military service that included service onboard Frigate and Corvette class Warships, appointments in Integrated Head Quarters of Defence, Defence Research and Development organization (DRDO) and some more coveted Indian Naval establishments. Petty officer Bhatt, has also served very closely with the Indian Navy’s elite Commando Force – MARCOS. He has also served foreign assignments in Russia, USA and other friendly Nations. He is an expert in the field of Nuclear Biological and Chemical Warfare and Defence I ncluding Fire and Safety. Petty officer Bhatt has done extensive research for two years for this Book ‘KARGIL YUDHDH’ and immortalized the war stories of heroism of martyrs of a war that was fought 20 years back, through the memoirs of their fellow soldiers. He continuously writes and talks about stories of valour and heroism of Indian Jawans. He is also an avid thinker on National Security and the problem of Terrorism. Through, ex servicemen welfare organization, Suryodaya Maji Sainik Mahamandal, Rajkot his team is continuously striving very hard for rehabilitation and resettlement of widows of soldiers, martyred soldier’s families, disabled ex servicemen and Ex servicemen in general. Suryodaya Maji Sainik Mahamandal is the only organization in the entire state which exclusively renders help in solving issues related to pension and medical aid of ex-servicemen. The Author can also be contacted on his e-mail: sainikswaraj @ gmail.com.

It has been a century since Mahatma Gandhi rose into prominence in Indian Political movement for freedom. It was his opposition of Rowlatt Act – 1919, by using Satyagraha and the promise of winning Swaraj within six months if Hindu-Muslim unity is achieved and some other conditions were fulfilled. Gandhiji always said that there is no Swaraj without Hindu-Muslim unity.

The infamous ‘Butcher of Amritsar’ Brigadier General Reginald Dyer, in a murderous rage killed thousands of peaceful Indians protesting against Rowlatt Act at Jalliawala Bagh on 13th April 1919. He had told his son before he rushed to Amritsar to militarily control the civil disobedience movement of Satyagraha, “Mussulman and Hindus have united. I have been expecting this, there is a big show coming.”

Jallianwala Bagh massacre resulted in violence in Punjab, Gujarat and Bengal that deeply hurt Gandhiji who called off the campaign of Satyagraha against Rowlatt Act on 18th April 1919. However, Gandhiji’s appeal for Satyagraha and Hartals had began to unite and connect the Indian masses towards freedom movement and made him a very popular leader of mass populace across India.

Under guidance of Gandhiji, Indian National Congress held joint conferences with leaders of Khilafat and accepted the Khilafat Committee’s call of non-cooperation against the british. Dr. B R Ambedkar in his Book, Pakistan or the Partition of India wrote that “Swaraj was not its primary object, It was Khilafat and that Swaraj was added as a secondary object, to induce the Hindus to join.”

In 1919, the supporters of ‘Khilafat’ or ‘Caliphate’ or the ‘Islamic State’ movement went to the length of inviting the Amir of Afghanistan to invade India.

On 05th September, 1920 non-cooperation movement against the British Raj with demand of full independence and self-governance was launched by Gandhiji. He was able to successfully unite Hindu and Muslim communities in civil disobedience against the British by supporting the Khilafat movement of Indian Muslims.

On the other hand, the objective of Islamic movement of ‘Caliphate’ was two-fold: to preserve the ‘Caliphate’ / Khilafat and to maintain the integrity of the Turkish Empire. During those years, the word ‘Islamic extremism’ was yet to be mainstreamed, it still existed, though.

The Brotherhood between Khilafat ‘Caliphate and Non-Cooperation& the Cost of ‘Coming Together with Extremists’.
Gandhiji visited Calicut, Malabar on 18th August 1920 to gather support for non-cooperation and shore up the Khilafat base through meetings and fundraising.

A secret abstract of the Bombay Presidency police mentions about Gandhiji’s meeting in Calicut as, “There was little sympathy with the non-cooperation movement at Calicut barring for a few fanatical Mappilla youths.” Gandhiji has said in his speech at Calicut, “If the Mussalmans of India offer non-cooperation to Government in order to secure justice on the Khilafat, it is the duty of every Hindu to co-operate with their Moslem brethren.”

A 12 year old young Sikh boy, namely ‘Sardar Bhagat Singh’ who was witness to the british’s macabre acts of Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the martial law atrocities, saw a messiah in Gandhiji and joined the non-cooperation movement.

However, the Mopla youths whom Gandhiji visited in August 1920 had some other plans.They responded to the clarion call for non-cooperation; as their leaders Variyankunnath Kuhuharned Haji and Karat Moideen Kutty Haji, spearheaded the Malabar Hindu genocide of 1921 that led to mass execution of thousands of Hindus, forcible conversions, rapes of Hindu women and children and destruction of Hindu properties and places of worship.
In his Article in Young India on 20th October 1921 Gandhiji said, “I claim that with us both the Khilafat is the central fact, with Maulana Mahomed Ali because it is his religion, with me because, in laying down my life for the Khilafat, I ensure safely of the cow, that is my religion, from the Musalman knife.”

The Six month long genocide came to an end in January 1922 as british captured the last of the Mopla terrorists. The Congress working committee downplayed murders, dacoities, forced conversions and outrages on Hindu women by labeling the Mopla’s extremist ideology as ‘instances of so-called forcible conversion by some fanatics among Moplas”.

Mrs. Anni Besent, Theosophist, and founder Home Rule League wrote in her book, ‘The Future of Indian Politics’ (Theosophical Publishing House, 1922, pg. 252) :“The fourfold programme was begun formally on August 1, 1920; Swaraj was to be attained in a year, and on August 1, 1921, the first step was taken in the Malabar Rebellion; the Musalmans (Moplas) of that district after three weeks of preparing weapons, rose over a definite area in revolt, believing, as they had been told, that British Rule had ceased, and they were free.”

“The musalmans (Moplas) of that district after three weeks of preparing weapons rose over a definite area in revolt. They established the Khilafat Raj, crowned a King, murdered and plundered abundantly, and killed or drove away all Hindus who would not apostatise. Somewhere about a lakh (100,000) of people were driven from their homes with nothing but the clothes they had on, stripped of everything,” she added further.

Annie Besant’s scathingremarksabout the Islamic character of Mopla outrage are worth an evoke: “Malabar has taught us what Islamic rule still means , and we do not want to see another specimen of the Khilafat Raj in India . How sympathy with the Moplas is felt by the Muslims outside Malabar has been proved by the defence raised by them for.”

She further added that “Malabar has taught us what Islamic rule still means, and we do not want to see another specimen of the Khilafat Raj in India.”

The severity of Mopla genocide was spine chilling still, Gandhijidid not call off the non-cooperation movement nordid he withdraw support to the Khilafat.

Instead in his appeal to the liberals on 07th November 1920 Gandhiji said, “Forcible conversions are terrible but Moplah bravery must command admiration. These Malabaris are not fighting for the love of it. They are fighting for what they consider as religion and in a manner they consider themselves religious.”

Chauri Chaura Incident: 04-02-1922
It was February 1922, roused by Gandhiji and the Khilafat movement;countless volunteers had joined in Chauri Chauraprotests, as the non-cooperation movement had reached its pinnacle.

On 04th February 1922, Police fired on to a large group of Chauri Chaura protesters killing three and injuring several others. The mob got furious and burnt down the police station, with 23 policemen trapped inside. Gandhiji withdrew the Non-Cooperation movement in the wake of the Chauri Chaura incident on 12thFebruary 1922.

Even the Chauri Chaura incident had a extremist angle as according to one version as given in book ‘Event, Metaphor, Memory: Chauri Chaura’, by Shahid Amin, “The real agents (asli log) involved in the riot are, again, other people altogether in the narrative from Madanpur, a Pathan-trader dominated market village twenty miles south-east of Chauri Chaura.”

Like the young teenaged Sardar Bhagat Singh, thousands of youth across India suddenly felt disillusioned from Satyagraha and other Gandhian philosophies due to his abrupt cancellation of the Non-Cooperation movement.

And, I quote Dr. B R Ambedkar, “Mr. Gandhi was anxious to preserve Hindu-Moslem unity and did not mind the murders of a few Hindus, if it could be achieved by sacrificing their lives. This attitude to excuse the Muslims any wrong, lest it should injure the cause of unity, is well illustrated by what Mr. Gandhi had to say in the matter of the Mopla riots.”

Mrs. Annie Besant and Dr. Ambedkar’s apprehensions about the Khilafat being the extremist version of Islam were not misplaced. As we stand in the twenty first century, a hundred years after the ‘Caliphate’ and non-cooperation movement, we are able to witness some of the most catastrophic the events of the previous century through the hourglass, which have proven beyond doubt that corroboration with Islamic extremists has time and again proven to be detrimental.

Gandhiji is long gone, his ideology has been revered world over but in his motherland, his Satyagraha and Khadi have turned into political symbols as Khadi has lost its relevance.

On the other hand, the extremist ideology of Islamic State ‘Caliphate’ is here to stay. A cleric wants to turn Kerala into an Islamic State within the next 10 years. The Islamic State had found one of its initial Indian recruits from Kerala. A recent UN report has stated that there are “significant numbers of ISIL operatives in Kerala and Karnataka states.”

The Malabar massacre will remain a black day in Indian history.There can be no end to Islamic extremism as long we keep mum and remain politically correct. The only way to end the extremism is to fight against it. One has to be really honest and call spade a spade.This not just extremism, it is radical Islamic terrorism.

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Petty Officer Manan Bhatt
Petty Officer Manan Bhatt
Petty Officer Manan Bhatt is a Retired non-commissioned officer of the Indian Navy having participated in Kargil War and Operation Parakram. He joined the Navy in the year 1997 and hanged his boots in the year 2012, after 15 years of distinguished military service that included service onboard Frigate and Corvette class Warships, appointments in Integrated Head Quarters of Defence, Defence Research and Development organization (DRDO) and some more coveted Indian Naval establishments. Petty officer Bhatt, has also served very closely with the Indian Navy’s elite Commando Force – MARCOS. He has also served foreign assignments in Russia, USA and other friendly Nations. He is an expert in the field of Nuclear Biological and Chemical Warfare and Defence I ncluding Fire and Safety. Petty officer Bhatt has done extensive research for two years for this Book ‘KARGIL YUDHDH’ and immortalized the war stories of heroism of martyrs of a war that was fought 20 years back, through the memoirs of their fellow soldiers. He continuously writes and talks about stories of valour and heroism of Indian Jawans. He is also an avid thinker on National Security and the problem of Terrorism. Through, ex servicemen welfare organization, Suryodaya Maji Sainik Mahamandal, Rajkot his team is continuously striving very hard for rehabilitation and resettlement of widows of soldiers, martyred soldier’s families, disabled ex servicemen and Ex servicemen in general. Suryodaya Maji Sainik Mahamandal is the only organization in the entire state which exclusively renders help in solving issues related to pension and medical aid of ex-servicemen. The Author can also be contacted on his e-mail: sainikswaraj @ gmail.com.
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