Saturday, April 13, 2024
HomeOpinionsStory of Shiva devotee Ponniyin Selvan

Story of Shiva devotee Ponniyin Selvan

Also Read

Mani Ratnam’s films Ponniyin Selvan I and Ponniyin Selvan II are based on the 1955 novel Ponniyin Selvan by freedom fighter R. Krishnamurthy, who wrote under the pen name Kalki.

Krishnamurti’s stories were published as a weekly series in the Tamil magazine Kalki during 1950–1954. In 1955, they were combined and published in five volumes as Ponniyin Selvan, a novel of over 2,200 pages.

While Kalki’s book Ponniyin Selvan is not entirely based on historical facts, many historians say that it includes many accurate historical events. It is highly praised for its portrayal of the culture and heritage of the time through a story woven around the Chola Empire.

Kalki was born in 1895 in a poor family in Thanjavur village of Tamil Nadu. He dropped out of school to join Mahatma Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement against the British. After joining Ananda Vikatan magazine, he became a writer and editor.

Considered one of the most prolific writers of Tamil literature, he wrote several stories, novels, essays, and biographies. His most famous work is the novel Ponniyin Selvan.

The Chola dynasty was established about 2000 years ago

The Chola dynasty is one of the most prominent dynasties in Indian history. It can be divided into two periods: the Ancient Cholas (300 BCE-7th century CE) and the Medieval Cholas (8th-13th centuries CE).

The Ancient Cholas originated in the Kaveri River valley and had their earliest capital at Uraiyur (now Tiruchirappalli) in Tamil Nadu. They initially extended their rule to some areas of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

The first Chola king to be mentioned in historical records is Karikala. However, there is evidence that there were three Chola kings before him: Ellalan, Kulakotan, and Yamasachechenni. Karikala is the best-known of the Ancient Cholas, and his reign is considered a golden age for the dynasty.

The Sangam literature, which covers the history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala, mentions Karikala and the Chola dynasty. They are also mentioned in the inscriptions of Maurya Emperor Ashoka.

The Sangam literature also records several stories about the legendary Chola kings. According to one of its myths, the Chola king Kantaman was a contemporary of the sage Agastya, whose devotion led to the birth of the river Kaveri.

After Karikala, there is not much evidence about the Chola dynasty for the next 600-700 years. However, Sangam literature mentions at least 6 Chola kings after Karikala.

The Medieval Cholas were a powerful dynasty that ruled over much of southern India. They were known for their military prowess, their maritime trade, and their patronage of art and architecture. The most famous Medieval Chola king was Rajaraja Chola I, who conquered much of Sri Lanka and southern India.

The Chola dynasty came to an end in the 13th century CE. However, their legacy continues to be felt today in the form of their magnificent temples, their contributions to art and literature, and their influence on the development of southern Indian culture.

Rajaraja I was the greatest emperor born in the Chola Empire

The Medieval or Major Chola Empire began in the 8th century with King Vijayalaya. Vijayalaya ruled from 848 to 871 AD, and is believed to have laid the foundation of the Great Chola Empire in South India.

During the time of the Cholas, there were many other powerful dynasties in the south. Apart from the Cholas, the Chera and Pandya dynasties were prominent. The Rashtrakuta dynasty in the Deccan, which later defeated the Cholas, and the Chalukya dynasty, which ruled Andhra Pradesh, fought many wars with the Cholas.

Chola king Rajaraja I or Ponniyin Selvan, who conquered Sri Lanka and Maldives

The hero of Mani Ratnam’s film Ponniyin Selvan was the great Rajaraja Chola I, also known as Arulmozhi Varman. Born in 947 AD, he ruled from 985 AD to 1014 AD. The Chola Empire was at its height during his reign and that of his son, Rajendra Chola I.

At that time, the Chola Empire extended from the Maldives and Malaysia in the south to Sri Lanka and the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh in the north. Rajaraja Chola I was one of the most powerful emperors in South India, and his empire covered much of modern-day Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and Sri Lanka.

By 996 AD, he had conquered the Gangavadi territory (present-day Karnataka state), Kerala, and northern Sri Lanka. By 1014 AD, he had also captured the Lakshadweep and Maldives islands. He was given the title of “Mumudi Chola,” which means “the one who wears the three crowns of Chola, Chera, and Pandya.”

Rajendra Chola I, after taking control of the whole of Sri Lanka, captured the Deccan and also conducted military operations in the area of the Ganges river in the north. He expanded the Chola Empire to Sumatra (Indonesia) and Malaya (Malaysia).

While on a military campaign to the east, Rajendra Chola I defeated King Mahipala of the Pala dynasty, who was ruling Pataliputra. Rajendra Chola I is said to have invaded the plains of the Ganges only for Ganga water, and he brought Ganga water from Bengal and offered it in the Brihadeeswarar temple built by his father, Rajaraja Chola I, at Tanjore in Tamil Nadu.

After this, Rajendra Chola I made his new capital Gangaikonda Cholapuram located in Ariyalur district of Tamil Nadu. A few years after the death of Rajendra Chola I in 1044, the Chola dynasty began to decline and came to an end with the death of Rajendra III in 1279.

The Chola navy was ahead of the British navy in strength, and their flag was raised as far as Indonesia and Malaysia

The Chola Empire’s naval power was its greatest strength. This power helped the Cholas conquer Malaysia and Indonesia. The Chola Empire controlled such a vast maritime territory that it is also known as the first and only maritime empire of India.

Historian Satish Chandra writes in his book The History of the Medieval Era that the Cholas’ dominance in naval power was such that for a few years the Bay of Bengal came to be known as the “Chola Lake.”

Historians say that European powers like Britain, France, and Portugal paled in comparison to the naval power of the Chola kings. While the seafaring journeys of European powers began in the 15th century with the discovery of sea routes by sailors like Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama, the Chola kings conducted successful naval campaigns in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Cambodia about 400 years before European powers.

The Cholas developed strong ties with maritime merchants, which enabled them to conduct powerful naval campaigns. Historians say that maintaining a strong army and navy was also a necessity for the Cholas, as the 9th to 10th centuries were a very violent time, with frequent wars between kings.

This was the period when the Rashtrakutas defeated the Cholas. During this time, there was a great deal of succession warfare in the Chola dynasty, which is the main theme of the film Ponniyin Selvan.

The Chola king was a devotee of Shiva, but he also donated heavily to Vishnu temples

Rajaraja I was a great devotee of Shiva, and he built many temples dedicated to the Hindu god. However, he is also considered a secular ruler, as he and his family also donated to the construction of Vishnu temples.

When the king of Srivijaya (modern-day Indonesia) sought Rajaraja I’s help in building a Buddhist vihara, the Chola king donated an entire village called Anaimangalam for the construction and maintenance of the Chudamani Vihara monastery.

One of the largest Hindu temples in the world, the Brihadeeswarar Temple was built by Rajaraja I

The Chola kings are also known for their patronage of the arts and architecture. Rajaraja I is known for the construction of the Brihadeeswarar temple in Thanjavur, which was the largest building in India at the time. The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva and is one of the largest Hindu temples in the world. It is still famous for its architecture and has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

READ MORE: वेदों में जाति-भेद नहीं

In addition to the Brihadeeswarar temple, UNESCO has also included the Airavatesvara temple in Darasuram and the Gangaikonda Cholapuram temple in the World Heritage Site. These three temples are all dedicated to Lord Shiva and are notable for their architectural and sculptural achievements.

The Cholas were also prolific patrons of the arts, and their reign saw a flowering of Tamil literature, music, and dance. The Chola kings commissioned many works of art, including sculptures, paintings, and bronzes. They also built a number of irrigation works, which helped to improve agricultural production and trade.

The Cholas were a powerful and influential dynasty, and their legacy can still be seen today in the many temples, monuments, and works of art that they commissioned. Their inscriptions provide a valuable source of information about their history and culture.

  Support Us  

OpIndia is not rich like the mainstream media. Even a small contribution by you will help us keep running. Consider making a voluntary payment.

Trending now

- Advertisement -

Latest News

Recently Popular