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Iran’s nuclear diplomacy: Necessity or threat

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Abstract

The nuclear weapons, one of the most destructive weapon in the world, is really important in present world for each and every country. It has sometimes become necessity for any country but sometimes it has been the biggest threat for another country. It has been, nowadays, used as nuclear energy for power generation with less amount of pollution which has been the much needed step for achieving the aim of Paris Summit signed in 2015.

Presently, each and every country wants to increase their nuclear stocks as early as possible and some countries want to hide from the world about their nuclear stocks. One such country is Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān  or Islamic Republic of Iran , the country which is blacklisted by FATF has been the country which want to hide their nuclear stocks from the world. But the question arises why any country want to hide their nuclear stocks because it is considered as the most important weapon in the present world and the hiding of nuclear weapons is necessity or threat for the country.

Keywords

State – The territory or the nation which has sovereign government.

Nuclear Disarmament – The act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.

Non-Proliferation – The act of discouraging or reducing the hoarding.

Introduction

The Nuclear weapons, as the events which has been happened until now like the dropping of bomb “fat boy” or cherbonyl nuclear disaster, has clearly states, they are the most important weapons for the survivable of the country.Though at present time as a signatories of NPT in 1969 and the formation of Nuclear agency IAEA to check the nuclear capacity in the country, it has been assumed that the countries are using nuclear for the  peaceful purposes. But the the reality has always been hidden.

At present according to the report published by SIPRI yearbook in 2020, many countries are increasing their stockpiles of nuclear weapons. India, Pakistan and China are main countries as they are not a part of NPT.

But in the present world it is utmost important for some countries to have stockpiles for nuclear weapons. But it is still ambiguous to tell that the nuclear stockpiles are of necessity or a threat .

As we have seen , the country like Iran, the country with highest border and one of the most important country as situated at the crossroads of Central Asia, South Asia, and the Arab states of the Middle East. This strategic position—and its access to the Persian Gulf in the south—have made Iran an important country throughout its history. Iran has the highest border with 7 countries and all the countries are have become a threat for Iran. But sometimes it seems like the the Iran has been a threat for the world because of its increasing stockpiles of nuclear.

MAIN OBJECTIVE

The country of 1648195 sq km2 and just 8.4 crore people and run by the hard cleric president having major Shia castes Muslims have been considered by the world as one of the major threat due to its increasing nuclear stockpiles accusing for using for making a nuclear weapon.

The aim of the research is to find out how can the country with just a small population and a small area can become a threat for the world which other countries are accusing. Another question arises that is it really a threat for the world or necessity for the small countries like Iran to save increase their nuclear stockpiles? The problem not ends here itself because other countries like India, Pakistan, China are also increasing their nuclear stockpiles and why such stringent action can be taken against the country like China?

The main accusation it was facing is that it has not complied with the terms signed in JCPOA. However the terms are  Under the deal, Iran agreed to curb its nuclear activity in return for the lifting of sanctions and access to global trade. The agreement allowed Iran to accumulate small amounts of uranium for research but it banned the enrichment of uranium, which is used to make reactor fuel and nuclear weapons. Iran was also required to redesign a heavy-water reactor being built, whose spent fuel could contain plutonium suitable for a bomb and to allow international inspections. On this basis again the question arises, if any country does not complied with the terms set by the major developed countries, then the countries would have to suppressed on that grounds? Though it was ambiguous about the status of Iran in the treaty of NPT and major sanctions for uranium enrichment have been imposed against it by major countries but Israel , main ally of US, and one of the country of infringing human rights, and no action has been taken against it yet.  

IMPORTANT THINGS TO BE KNOWN

The nuclear diplomacy is really important in the present world because each and every country though want to show that they are decreasing the stockpiles of nuclear weapons but the reality is every country needs to be safe and therefore they have relied on the weapon which can destroy the other enemy easily i.e. Nuclear weapon. Though some countries like India, Pakistan have shown that they are increasing stockpiles but maximum countries like Iran have to hide their nuclear stockpiles.

Iran though the small country with bordering 7 countries is really at the most strategic position. But if we have seen the history of Iran , it wants the nuclear program since 1950s. But as the time passes since 2002-2015 Iran wanted to be a nuclear country very badly. Everyone in the world thinks that Iran will be great threat for other countries as it is stockpiling the nuclear warheads. But the question or main topic of research is why Iran want the nuclear weapons.

The research which has been conducted finds that the west has been suppressing Iran since invasion of Iran in 1979. The former president of US has also supported Saddam Hussain to invade Iran. He added Iran in its ‘evil of Axis’ as well. After the research as well we find that  are convinced that US shows supremacy over other countries and suppressed other countries as well. Therefore due to the strategic importance of Iran, US wants to annex Iran and US has sent its army to Afghanistan and Iraq. This shows Iraq is generally an important ally of US and US has been showing suppression since the beginning of the Republic of Iran.  

Though the signing between P5+1 has been utmost important but the backing of US president by giving the reason that Iran is not complying with the agreement ,even in 2018 according to report by IAEA shows that Iran has been complying with the agreement , shows that US wants to show supremacy on each and every country. We also think that  trump has been backed out due to diplomatic relations and high cost of operation of army.

But the main point is again why Iran needs such a destructive weapon because Iran also knows that if it can use it , it may destruct the whole country.

The Findings says that Iran being the country with many numbers of enemies though countries like China and Russia helped but most of the countries are against it. If we see through the purview of Iran , we may find that Iran is a major Shia Muslim Country which has clearly showed that every Sunni Muslim country like UAE, Saudi Arabia etc are all against it. We have seen that west has always been oppressive and offensive against it even every Europe country is  criticizing its policies. If we see from Asia side, China is helping, India is neutral but looking at the Pakistan, we find that it is home for many number of terrorist which may be hostile against Iran. If everything against us we can take help from neighbour. But looking at the neighbour of Iran we have find that  the overturn of government in Afghanistan by one of the major terrorist group I.e. Taliban. The group though Muslim-centrist but on of the major enemy of Iran. We have seen that the terrorist group has easily taken different parts of the Afghanistan and has taken control over the entire Afghanistan in just a few days after the US has back off.

The another enemy and major enemy , Iraq, which has the highest influence of the US army is another major problem for Iran. Iraq is the country where one of the major terrorist group ISIS has been born for years. Though both the countries have been sharing major common interest but there is always a issue after the major Iran-Iraq war in 1973. The presence of US has been considered as another problem.

Turkey and Iran both the countries have regarded themselves as one of the major power of Middle east is another form of tension. This region is really important for both the countries.The another conflict is Turkey strong relation with the US.Thus Iran is being the isolated country from the world which really need a true friend which may really help the country at odd times.

The another reason is being the nuclear program is very big issue in the Iran domestic politics. The hard cleric country with the view that it is not under anyone but it the country with the full power of its own.

ANALYSIS

 Iran is country which has been surrounded by 7 major countries like to the north by Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkmenistan, and the Caspian Sea, to the east by Pakistan and Afghanistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. And according to the different form of studies we find that it is really important for Iran to have nuclear stockpiles.

Currently we have seen that the overturn of government in Afghanistan by one of the major terrorist group I.e. Taliban. The group though Muslim Centrism but on of the major enemy of Iran. We have seen that the terrorist group has easily taken different parts of the Afghanistan and has taken control over the entire Afghanistan in just a few days after the US has back off.

The another enemy and major enemy , Iraq, which has the highest influence of the US army is another major problem for Iran. The Iraq is the country where one of the major terrorist group ISIS has been born for years. Though both the countries have been sharing major common interest but there is always a issue after the major Iran-Iraq war in 1973. The presence of US has been considered as another problem.

Turkey and Iran both the countries have regarded themselves as one of the major power of Middle east is another form of tension. This region is really important for both the countries.The another conflict is Turkey strong relation with the US. The problem of present war for oil and natural gas has been shaped Iran as the country of Utmost important as it has very high rich oil and natural gas reserves.

If we analyse the things accordingly , the theory of realism is utmost important which is given by Hans J. Morgenthau. According to him, the power defined as ,”Man’s control over the minds and action of other man”. This theory can be considered as the utmost important. The main core of elements of this theory can easily tell that there is much needed of this theory in the present world.

  1. Statism- The first elements tells that state is the sole representative in the present world for ensuring the interest of the people> State can do whatever it wants for the accomplishment of the interest of the people.
  2. Survival- The second and most important elements which can tell the conclusion as well.The meaning of this Survival is the universal national interest of the nation. According to this , for the survival it is really important to take the steps which helpful in safeguarding the interest of the nation and the foreign policy could be made by the state looking at one’s own interest.
  3. Self-Help – The third and the last element which is really of utmost important tells us the real answer of the problem. According to it, each state actor is responsible for ensuring its own well-being and survival which clearly states that for the safety and for the survival of the  interest of citizens the state can take any step.

Thus, if we analysis the strategic position of Iran in parlance with the theory of Realism, we can think that the nuclear weapon can be very important source of safety for the country like Iran as it is a landlocked country and its relation with its each neighbour is highly intense. Therefore  in my opinion  the nuclear weapon for Iran can be a necessity than a threat but it can also be turn into threat, Therefore to avoid this type of situation, Iran also should adopt “Nuclear first use Policy’ like Indian which states that the country can not use its nuclear stockpiles if other country avoided it.  

CONCLUSION 

After a very long discussion and long research , we can only conclude that the world free from nuclear disarmament can only be a myth. The Gandhian Principles of Satya and Non-violence has only been looked good in books but in the present world where each country in any or other way are fighting on some reasons the bad effect of which has been resulted in migration of citizens, human rights violation.

The main causes of this problem can be lack of mutual interest between the nations. In present world, every country has been following the idea of realism and the very little about the theory of Neo-liberalism. This has been shown in many parts of the world. Another reason is suppression by major developed countries. They want the supremacy over the world therefore they try to rule in their own way which is another form of conflict among the countries. The third reason is the value of survivable of the interest of the citizen which has been,sometimes, infringed by another countries which has become a threat  or cause of tension among the countries.

Thus, the problem whether the nuclear weapon for small country like Iran is necessity or threat for the world reached at the conclusion that the small country like Iran which is a landlocked country and fear of war from all sides has become a necessity for the country to increase its nuclear stockpiles to some extent for its safety purpose. And it is also an area of strategic importance as where the world is fighting for the oil and natural gas reserves and it is the area of maximum gas reserves put the country in a position where it has to save its reserves from the external sources and thus where the countries like US, UK etc have very highly and Neo-technology weapons. Therefore to save its country and for the survival of the country, as it is the major asset for its GDP, it has been considered a necessity for the country.

But the problem is whether the stockpile can be used anytime during war or threat. Therefore I think that Iran alike other countries should adopt Nuclear First Use Policy. And other treaties should also be signed between different countries like NEW START TREATY between US and Russia for nuclear disarmament so that each country should live peacefully and without any type of war.

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