With BJP government under the leadership of Modiji taking his second term was successful to solve many issues which we are been struggling to sort out for decades. But Modi 2.0 put the whole country into surprise by settling them one after the other which our previous leaders have put in a controversial position and had lead to everlasting issues. With succeeding one after the other we have moved on to one of the major issues that is the border issue with China where there was continuous intrusions and standoffs going on from decades. Though we felt there was betterment of relations with China under Modiji , but China didn’t leave his mentality of backstabbing, misleading and trying to occupy land of other countries.
The republic of China is consistent in continuously trying to expand its territory by various tactics used by intellectual, monetary and military efforts. With these it was able to occupy Manchuria, south Mongolia, East Turkestan, Hong kong, Taiwan and Tibet (Fig.1). Before moving ahead on the present situation we need to go with the History at the time of Indian independence. With no well defined borders with Tibet and china where there was trade with India for many centuries, we need to go by the treaties signed by the Britishers in defining our borders. Initially in 1865 Johnsons line was been defined as the boundary of India which was accepted by China till 1893, until in the great game between Russia and British, the British decided to give a part of Aksai Chin to China redefining the border as Mc Cartney-Mc Donald line in 1899 (Fig.2).
After attaining independence in 1947, India failed to define its map till 1950.The Republic of China with an intent to occupy Tibet extended its invasion towards Ladakh in the Himalayas, Tawang in Arunachal pradesh proclaiming them to be a part of Tibet and henceforth part of China. The border in North east was defined by Mcmahon line which is defined by a treaty signed by Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh. This confusion among which lines to be defined as territory led to continuous struggle between these nations.
From 1950 to 1957, China constructed a 179 kms road Sinkiang-Tibet road in Aksai Chin a territory considered to be integral part of India then. The government of India at that movement didn’t consider this as a serious issue and even said as even a grass blade can’t grow there then what is the use of that land? With continuous criticizism from other parties , the then government decided to confront with china which led to war with China in 1962. India failed to use their air force from Tezpur in Assam efficiently then which led our country lose the war in 1962. India lost a territory of Ladakh to China which is named as Aksai Chin which is around 38,000 sq. Kms. Present day India shares around 3440 Kms border with china which can be divided into three sectors–> Western sector( 1570 kms), Central sector (545 Kms) and Eastern sector (1325 Kms). In each of these sectors there are disputes regarding a portion of land which is under the control of India which is claimed by China as theirs. Peoples Liberation army (PLA) has continuous intrusion around 250-300 times annually.
The usual areas of intrusion are Tawang, Tulung La in Arunachal pradesh, Dokhlam in Sikkim, Barahoti in Uttarakhand, Pangong lake, Demchok , Galwan valley in Ladakh. With previous incursions India has lost many territories like Tia Pangnak and Chabji valley in 2008, Zorawart fort in Demjok destroyed in 2008, Doom cheley (ancient trade point) occupied in 2008-2009 and chinese colony developed in Demjok under the previous government somnolence. Dokhlam standoff in 2017 lasted nearly more than 70 days. Previous bilateral agreements signed by the two sides in 1993, 1996, 2005, 2012 and 2013 has remained ineffective in checking Chinese incursions. But since 1975, there was no death reported even though there were many episodes of standoffs between the two nations until 2020.
Now the question raises why this year the standoffs turned violent and why China turned more aggressive in entering Indian territory? The answer remains the categorically strategy India developing to handle a crisis situation by developing these territories to carry better means of transport and Indian diplomacy with other nations leading to impending support for the Modi Government. The reasons for China’s behaviour:
1. Improvement of border infrastructure (Construction of Roads)
2. Abrogation of article 370 and formation of 2 union territories Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh which led these areas to be controlled by center and paves way for better development in these areas
3.Improvement of airstrip (Daulat Begi Oldi (DBO), Fukche and Nyoma)
4. Development of missiles like Brahmos and acquisition of Rafael aircrafts
5.Curbs on Chinese investments in India
6. India’s support for Tibet , Taiwan
7.India along with other 62 countries supported to probe COVID origin
8. Many companies had moved out of China and India was thought of next place to start up their companies
9. Growing defence and security ties with the US, Japan and Australia
10. Plan to include India in G11 nations group
11. India’s decision to withdraw from negotiations for the mega-regional trade agreement known as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) disappointed China.
All these together had put China into a critical situation. India had supported for Taiwan to represent in WHO. DSDBO (Darbuk Shyok Daulat Beg Oldie) road built by Border Roads Organisation-connects Leh to Daulat Beg Oldie (DBO), the northernmost corner of Indian territory in Ladakh. DBO is the highest airstrip in the world and the DSDBO road has a length of 255 Kms and is a all weather road. It runs parallel to Line of actual control at Aksai China. Also the DBO remains close to the Korakorram pass and the economic corridor which is planned and build along the border by China to Gilgit-Balistan. Chewang Richen Bridge opened in October 2019 located at 14,650 feet world’s highest bridge (Fig.3 and 4). The longest bridge Dhola–Sadiya Bridge (9.15 Kms)(2017) in north east running parallel to the LOAC, Chewang Richen bridge (inauguarted in October 2019) and road to the world’s highest airstrip DBO lead to increased fear in Chinas heart.
But this is the time India under the leadership of Modiji is able to successfully retaliate the situation and strategically sideline China by India’s diplomatic ties with other nations under the leadership of Modiji.