Indian civilization is one of the oldest living civilizations. Indian civilization has a rich culture of science and technology. Ancient India gave so much significant to science world. India was a centre of the education. Ancient India was rich science, it also had a excellent knowledge in the field Medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha and Yoga), Astrology, Astronomy, Sculpture, Engineering, Mathematics, Economics and many other disciplines.
India is land of so many great sages and scholars. They gave many great concepts and theories without which this modern revolution in science was not possible.But the sad part about all these things that they never got credits for their works, techniques, theories and innovations many works are still unknown to the world.
Here you will know about some important innovations, theories and concepts that lead the world to modern sciences.
1. Zero and Decimal System
‘ZERO’ was a very significant and popular idea which was developed by Indian mathematician Aryabhatta .
The origin of the modern decimal system can be found to the Aryabhatiya (a book by Aryabhatta), in which Aryabhatta wrote sthānāt sthānaṁ daśaguṇaṁ syāt this means that from place to place each is ten times the preceding.
We all know importance of binary numbers which are used in computer. Binary numbers are basic language in computer programs are written.
Pingala, the author of Chandahsastra firstly described a concept similar to modern binary system. Pingala (in Chandahsastra 8.23) assigned two combinations to represent various other numbers. Combination used by Pingala were laghu (light) and guru (heavy),similar to 0 and 1 used in binary system.
Pingala also invented many other concepts i.e. Matrameru (Fibonacci numbers), Numeral system, Meruprasastra(Pascal’s triangle) and arithmetical triangle etc.
3.The Heliocentric Theory
Heliocentric Theory states that earth and planets revolve around the sun in solar system. Aryabhatta (476–550), in his work Aryabhatiya (499), proposed a planetary model in which he wrote Earth is spinning on its axis and time of revolution of planets around Sun was determined with respect to distance from Sun.
Dentistary is a branch of medical science which deals with the detailed study of teeth.It includes study, diagnosis of disease, prevention from disease and treatment. Evidences obtained from Indus Valley Civilization suggests that dentistary has been practicing before 7000BC. Remains obtained from excavation site of Indus Valley Civilization tells that methods used for treatment of teeth were much successful and reliable.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine which was invented and developed in India. Ayurveda includes herbal medicines, minerals and metals. Word Ayurveda literally means (aayu = life; veda = knowledge) knowledge of life. Ayurveda has been traced around 6000 BC. Charak samhita and Susruta samhita are to ancient manuscripts written in sanskrit describes about Ayurveda.
First known cataract surgery was performed in India by an Indian surgeon Susruta. He did cataract surgery (couching). Various types of surgeries are described in his book Susruta samhita.
Yoga is a group physical, mental and spiritual practices or disciplines. Yoga was originated in ancient India.Yoga is described in ancient holy text Rigveda. It was invented around 3000 BC in ancient India.
Word Yoga is derived from sanskrit word yuj which means ‘to join’ or ‘to attach’. It helps to connect us our body with mind.
Yoga helps in improvement of health of our mind and body. It is now widely practised across the world.
Susruta is considered as first surgeon. Susruta was founding father of surgery in India. He did various types of surgeries, plastic surgery (of nose) was also one of them. Susruta developed technologies for reconstruction of organs.
Susruta also described various types of surgical instruments which can be used during surgery, in his Susruta samhita.
Kanada, an ancient Indian natural scientist and philosopher firstly gave concept of ATOMISM.
He ddescribed his idea in his text vaisheshika sútrà (a.k.a. Kannada sútrà). In this text he described about Dravaya(matter) , anu (molecules) ,parmanu (atom) , guna(properties) etc.
10.Hydrology and water management
Ancient India had a great knowledge about hydrology and water management.
In India it is known through Vedic period (1500-500 BC).Harappan civilization and Vedic civilization had best technologies for water management.Harappa civilization excavation sites are proof of a well developed hydrology water management system were used.
Maurayan eempire (322 – 185 BC) is credited as first hydrologic civilization. During mauryan empire a lot of construction work of dams, spillways, development of water piercing system etc. had occurred.