Jai Javan Jai kissan… India is a country which is dependent on agriculture for day olden days. Various welfare schemes are introduced by the present government to revitalise the agricultural sector.
1. Soil health card scheme: Swasth Dhara Keth hara( Healthy soil green field)
It was launched by government of India in 19th February 2015. Under this scheme all soil samples are tested in various soil testing labs and depending on it recommendations advice given to the farmers what nutrients and fertilisers are required for the individual farms. Government plans to issue cards for 14 crore farmers and budget allocated for this is 568 crore rupees. As on 16/05/2017 , 7.25 crore soil health cards have been distributed to the farmers.
2. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
It was launched in 18 February 2016 by Prime minister Narendra Modi as an insurance service for farmer for their yields. Around 6.11 crore farmers had availed the benefits of this scheme. In this scheme the farmer needs to pay maximum premium of 2% for Kharif, 1.5% for Rabi food and oil seed crops and 5 % for annual commercial/ horticultural crops . Rest of the premium to be shared between state and central government and the claims to be settled within 2 months. The aim of the scheme was to provide Its compulsory for loanee farmers who were availing crop loan / KCC (Kisan credit card) account for notified crops and its voluntary for others.
3. Neem coated Urea:
Government took a decision that urea manufacture and imported to India to be 100% Neem coated for 3 reasons.
I. Urea which is subsidised for farmers get at a cost of 5,360 per tonne compared to industrial purpose (Paints and plywood industry) where it is sold for 22,000-23,000 per tonne. This led to savings of around 10,000 crore.
II. Neam coated urea acts as a bio-pesticide
III. It will delay the process of nitrification leading to 10 % less requirement of fertiliser and increase in product by 10%
The requirement of urea is at 30 million tonnes whereas only 22 million tones were produced in India and rest met with imports.
4. Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sanchai Yojana (PMKSY):
It was launched in July 2015 with the main aim being to provide water sources, distribute network and apply at farm level. Also aims to harness rain water through Jal Sanchay and Jal Sinchan. This scheme was approved with a budget of 50,000 crores over period of 5 years ( 2015 to 2019-20)
a) Har Khet Ko Pani: Implemented by Ministry of water resources
b) Micro irrigation (more crop per drop): Utilise water by conserving and utilizing more effectively. Implemented by land resources.
5. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY):
The aim of this scheme is to promote organic farming and through this improve the quality of soil health. This is based on cluster and participatory guarantee system certification. With an aim of forming 10,000 clusters with each cluster formed by 50 or more farmers covering a 50 acre land they are trained and allotted Rs.20,000/ acre for 3 years.
6. National Agriculture Market (e-NAM):
e-NAM or e trading platform was started in April 2016 with a target of one nation one market working in phase with agricultural produce marketing committees(APMC) through which the middle men can be avoided and farmers can directly trade with the portal and sale their products. Also there was development of farmer producer organisation (FPO) where a group is formed by farmers and their products sold and presently 850 FPOs exist. Also there was development of ware house based training modules around 23 in Andhra Pradesh called as deemed markets. The e-Nam was managed by small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC). Of 6500 APMCs in India 585 markets in 16 states and 2 union territories were integrated with e-NAM services and further 470 mandis are awaited to be integrated into this service. The government had allotted 200 crore rupees for the Agri-Tech infrastructure Fund (ATIF) and each market is allotted 30 lakh rupees for the development of this portal. Through e-NAM 91,000 crore had been traded till January 2020 and 1.65 crore farmers and 1.27 lakh traders have registered in e-NAM portal. Under the vision of Prime minister the target is to double the income of farmers by 2022.
7. Micro Irrigation Fund (MIF):
Under NABARD (national bank for agriculture and rural development) Rs. 5000 crore allocated for development of Micro irrigation and allocation was Rs. 2,000 crore and Rs. 3,000 crore during 2018-19 and 2019-20 respectively. These loan was given to state government and needs to be repaid back in 7 years with grace period of 2 years. In 2018-19 around 12 lakh hectare land were under micro-irrigation but target is to provide it to 70 lakh hectares. By this micro-irrigation farmers will be able to save irrigation water by from 20 to 48%, energy saving from 10 to 17%, save labour cost from 30 to 40% , fertilizers from 11to 19 % and increase in crop production from 20 to 38%.
8. Agriculture contingency plan:
Central Research Institute for Dry land Agriculture (CRIDA), ICAR along with state agricultural universities have developed contingency plans for districts depending on the monsoons, heat waves and other extreme events which can damage the crops. Total of 614 districts have been included into the “farmer portal” in ministry of agriculture and family welfare website to guide them.
9. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture is one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). It has following plans
• Rainfed Area Development (RAD) – implemented by RFS Division.
• Sub Mission on Agro Forestry (SMAF) – implemented by NRM Division
• Soil Health Management (SHM) – implemented by INM Division
• Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) – implemented by INM Division
• National Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA) – implemented by RFS Division
• Soil and Land Use Survey of India (SLUSI) – implemented by RFS Division
• National Centre of Organic Farming (NCOF) – implemented by INM Division
• Mission Organic Value Chain Development in North Eastern Region (MOVCDNER) – implemented by INM Division
• central Fertilizer Quality Control and Training Institute (CFQC &TI) implemented by INM division.
10. Live stock Insurance scheme:
This scheme is implemented as a protective mechanism to farmers and cattle bearers in case of loss of cattle and to develop awareness in farmers on insurance policies in other products. With this scheme government aims to provide insurance under subsidy with the support of central government for high milk yielding cattle with an insurance of the full price of the cattle. Minimum to cattle for one family are to be insured for a period of 3 years. Also the centre has planned 13,343 crore rupees to control live stock diseases like foot and mouth, brucellosis, etc. Also the scheme plans to vaccinate 30 crore bovines (Cows, bulls and buffaloes) and 20 crore sheep and goat and 1 crore pigs. If a cattle is infected with food and mouth disease there is a loss of 100% milk production and if infected with brucellosis there is 30% loss of milk production. Aim is to eliminate foot and mouth disease, brucellosis in cattle and pestedes petits ruminants(PPR) in sheep and goats by 2025.The coverage of artificial insemination to be increased from 30 to 70% and production of milk processing capacity to be doubled from 53.5 million metric tonnes to 108 million metric tonnes by 2025.
11. Gramin Bhandaran Yojana (Rural go down scheme)
Farmers or individuals given subsidies ranging from 25 % to 33.33% for construction of go downs or wear houses in rural areas to store the grains ranging from 100 tonnes to 30,000 tonnes.
12. PM- Kisan Samman Nidhi Scheme:
with an aim to support farmers, central government had started PM kisan samman nidhi scheme in December 2018 to give Rs. 6000 in 3 phases for around 8 crore farmers. The budget spent on this scheme last year was 43,000 crores.
13. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhaan Yojana:
The scheme was effective from August 2019 with an aim to provide pension for small and marginal farmers after age 60 years with a monthly pension of Rs. 3000. Depending on the age (18-40 years), the contribution varies from Rs. 55- Rs.200 and they need to contribute till 60 years, later on they receive pension. With an aim to cover 3 crore farmers 18,29,469 beneficiaries had registered in this scheme till 14/11/2019.
14. Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate Karyakram:
This scheme to uplift the agricultural labourers which form around 50% of the population in the agricultural sector.
15.Krishi Udan: With help of ministry of civil aviation to improve value realisation in northeast and tribal districts.
16. Kisan Rail:
To transport perishable goods like milk, meat ,fish etc., refrigerated coaches in trains to be developed by PPP arrangements.
17.PM Kisan Urja Suraksha Utthan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM) scheme:
In this scheme 20 lakh farmers will be provided funds to set up standalone solar pumps and 15 lakh farmers will be provided funds to setup grid connected 15 lakh solar pumps in barren lands. Currently 30 million agricultural pumps are installed in country of which 10 million are diesel based and 20 million are grid connected which consume 17% of total annual electricity consumption. Aim to enable Annadaata (Food provider) to become Urja Daata (energy provider) and with a aid of Rs. 34,422 crore and to produce solar energy capacity of 25,750 MW by 2022. Of the finance 60% will be provided by government, 30% as bank loan from farmers and 10% need to beared by farmers to setup solar power projects.
18. Dhanyalakshmi scheme:
Self help groups (SHG) and women in villages to play an important role in village storage scheme.
19. Zero budget natural farming and development of other activities like solar pumps, solar energy production and bee keeping in non cropping season. JAIVIK KHETI (Organic farming) portal to be developed for organic products.
20. Non banking finance companies (NBFC) and cooperatives are also involved in agriculture credit team. The credit target for year 2020-21 is set at 15 lakh crores. NABARD re-finance scheme will also be expanded.
21. KCC (Kisan Credit card) Scheme:
It provides credit to farmers in agriculture sector, fisheries and animal husbandry and the premium is borne in 2:1 ratio between the bank and the borrower.
22. Blue economy:
Plan to develop, management and conservation of marine fishery resources. Plan is to raise fish production by 200 lakh tonnes by 2022-23 and raise exports of fishery to 1 lakh crore by 2024-25. To reach this target youth need to be involved in extension of fishery through 3477 sagar mitras and 500 Fish farmer Producer organisations.
23. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Antyodyaya Yojana:
To allevate poverty , 58 lakh SHGs have been mobilised. This is performed by skill training to 0.5 million /year in urban areas to 1 million/ year in rural areas with a budget of 500 crores. From 2014 to 2016 skills were imparted to 4.5 lakh urban poor getting jobs for 1 lakh people.
In this way government has formed pavement for the progress of farmers giving top priority for agriculture, trends to utilize modern techniques, provide them free loans, help them sale their products ,conserve them all together leading to uplift of farming.