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Journey of education policies in India from independence to new education policy 2020

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India was home to the Gurukul system of education. This Gurukul system of education has produced many scholars who revotunalised the world with their knowledge. However, with the advent of Britishers, Gurukul system started losing its existence. The Britishers knew that the Gurukul system of education is the biggest obstruction of their dream to rule on entire India. They succeeded in imposing their education system by destroying our education system. They succeeded in making us mentally slave.

However, after independence, a new education system was needed in our country. Jawahar Lal Nehru had a clear vision to modernize Indian education system. University education commission (1948-49) and secondary education commission (1952-53) were set up. IITs were setup to impart high-quality science education to students. NCERT was framed as an autonomous organisation that would advise union and state government on formulating and implementing education policies. However, no step was taken to revive our education system ie the Gurukul system of education. Many national-level institutions were set up in the field of higher education.

The first national policy on education (1968) was based on recommendations of the Kothari commission. The major points covered under the first national educational policies were

  1. Three language formulas to be implemented under secondary education.
  2. Compulsory education to all children up to 14 years of age
  3. Focus on learning of regional language
  4. It also talks about specialised training and qualification of teachers
  5. It has also emphasized on the teaching of Sanskrit language

This education policy also did not give attention to revive gurukul system.

Rajiv Gandhi had a clear vision to modernise the Indian education system. He had laid down many inclusive policies in the field of education for the betterment of unprivileged society. His government introduced a new education policy in 1986.

Key highlights of NPE (1986)

  1. IGNOU Was opened in 1985
  2. It called for a child-centric approach
  3. Operation blackboard was launched to improve the condition of primary schools
  4. It also called for special emphasis on removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity

The 1986 National policy on education was introduced in 1992 with certain modifications. It was called program of action. It talked about common entrance examinations for professional and technical education. In October 2001 Bajpai government introduced a common entrance exam for IITs and NITS called IITJEE and AIEEE respectively. While state-owned engineering colleges have been given an option to join AIEEE. It reduced the financial burden of parents. It also address the issue of exam- overlapping.

The policy on National education was last formed in 1986. Since 34 years we were following the same education policy with certain modifications. India strongly needed a new education policy which is competent with the growing world. Modi government introduced a new education policy in 2020.

NEP 2020 is a pathbreaker for the Indian education system. Its major recommendations are:

  1. The new structure of education ie (5+3+3+4) ie 5 years of fundamental stage + 3 years of preparatory stage+3 years of middle stage+ 4 years of the secondary stage)
  2. Coding will be introduced from class 6
  3. Multidisciplinary courses will be started
  4. Reports cards will include peer review, teacher review along with marks
  5. Internship in the form of vocational education will be started from class 6th.
  6. Teaching in mother language up to class 6thIt target to spend 6% of the GDP on Indian education
  7. MPhil course to be discontinued.

The NEP (2020) is a pathbreaker. It will revolutionize the Indian education system. Now our education system has shifted its focus towards producing employers rather than employees. We have taken a step to become Aatmanirbhar Bharat.NEP 2020 aims to give students technical skills at an early stage.  

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